Read the text and complete the chart below with a word from the list that comes after the text. Every word can only be used ONCE. There are FIVE words that you do not need to use. Question 0 has been answered as an example.
BEST AND WORST CITIES FOR COMMUTERS
The perfect commute is easy, inexpensive and reliable.
In cities 0) __________ such factors, like Buffalo, N.Y., Salt Lake City and Milwaukee, the trip to work is a breeze. But for commuters in Atlanta, Detroit and Miami, the daily grind is just that, thanks to bad traffic, 1) __________ infrastructure and drivers who resist car pools and public transportation.
Other 2) __________ that came out on top include Oklahoma City, Okla., Pittsburgh, Corpus Christi, Texas, and Eugene, Ore. At the bottom: Orlando, Fla., Dallas, Birmingham, Ala., and Raleigh, N.C.
To find them and others, Forbes.com looked at the 75 largest metro areas in the U.S. and evaluated them based on traffic 3) __________, travel times and how efficiently commuters use existing infrastructure, based on data from the Texas Transportation Institute and the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2006 American Community Survey. The worst commutes were those that 4) __________ up the most hours and were the least reliable. The best commutes were in cities with short, 5) __________ treks to the office, where fellow commuters efficiently use transit options to reduce 6) __________.
Varying population densities and development patterns in the nation’s cities make gauging efficiency difficult. In Boston, for example, jobs are mostly concentrated in and around the city center. In Los Angeles, offices are more 7) __________ out. That means Boston’s commuter rail is better able to put area commuters 8) __________ to their jobs than an identical train system could do for Los Angeles commuters.
Public transport systems work best when they limit traffic jams by taking cars 9)__________ the road, and thus reducing delays, travel time and increasing the predictability of a commute. Since carpooling can often accomplish the same feat, we measured a city’s commuting efficiency by adding the number of people who carpool, those who take public transport and those who walk to work, and divided the sum by the city’s total number of 10) __________, based on Census Bureau figures.
Boston scores a 23% by this measure, and Los Angeles checks in at 20%. In San Francisco, an extremely efficient city, 28% of the commuters take public transit, walk or carpool, while inefficient Kansas City, Mo., scores 12% by this measure.
Adapted from: Matt Woolsey © Forbes
ATE COMMUTERS FARTHER SPOTS
BOASTING CONGESTION INSUFFICIENT SPREAD
CANCELLATIONS DELAYS OFF UNRELIABLE
CLOSER DEPENDABLE OUT OF WASTED
CAR POOL: a group of people who travel together, especially to work or school, usually in a different member’s car each day.