1 Underline the correct word(s).
Example: You won’t be able / allowed to go into the laboratory with me. It’s for employees only.
1 You mustn’t / must remember use your mobile phone while you’re putting petrol into your car.
2 We ought / should to have set off earlier.
3 You don’t got / have to tip taxi drivers, but they always appreciate it.
4 Everyone will have to / better show their passport when we cross the border.
5 We need / needn’t phone Maria – she’s expecting us.
6 You didn’t need / needn’t have to pay for dinner, but it was lovely that you did.
7 It is not able / not permitted to bring your own food into this dining area.
8 We aren’t supposed to / allowed take these laptops out of this office.
2 Complete the sentences with the correct word(s).
Example: It seemed like a good idea to borrow the car, but it didn’t end well.
as though like being
1 When I was at the Summer Music Festival I saw your brother’s band ________.
to play playing played
2 I ________ someone say ‘hello’ but I couldn’t see who it was.
heard hear was heard
3 You ________ my friend Marco.
look look like are the look of
4 This soup tastes ________ garlic. It’s delicious!
of for as if
5 He ________ unhappy. Is everything OK?
seems to have ’s as though seems
6 Malcolm seems ________ a mistake. He was supposed to order four boxes of paper, but he ordered 40!
to have to have made like making
3 Complete the sentences with the gerund or the infinitive form of the verb in brackets.
Example: It’s no use worrying (worry). You’ll just have to wait and see what happens.
1 Our piano needs ________ (be) repaired because the movers dropped it.
2 We would rather ________ (have) gone to Germany for Christmas.
3 I thanked your parents for ________ (have) helped me when I was in trouble.
4 I’d like ________ (be) sitting in a café in Thailand right now.
5 By the time I’m 40, I hope ________ (have) started my own company.
6 I’m tired of ________ (be) told to wait. I’ve been standing here for three hours already!
4 Complete the sentences with one word.
Example: I heard they’re going to bring in a new law that makes it illegal to use your mobile in public.
1 Turn right ________ the corner and you’ll see the post office on your left.
2 Ania went ________ work early this morning.
3 If you look down now, you can see that we’re flying _______ the Sahara Desert.
4 I live on the fifth floor and my brother lives on the sixth. In fact, his flat is directly ________ mine.
5 I took £20 ________ of my wallet and gave it to Ben.
6 Jacob fell ________ his bike on the way to work and cut his head pretty badly.
7 I left some change for the waiter ________ the table, next to my cup.
8 Let’s go ________. It’s getting too cold and dark outside.
5 Underline the odd word(s) out.
Example: hailstorm flood drought mild
1 a bruise a surgeon a blister a rash
2 a cold flu asthma a plaster
3 ineffective mainstream unproven useless
4 a rip-off an X-ray antibiotics stitches
5 mild severe real prematurely
6 across through on top of put
6 Complete the words in the sentences.
Example: A car pulled up next to me and the driver waved.
1 Could you w________ down your window and ask that man for directions, please?
2 Marty s________ out his last cigarette and said he would never smoke again.
3 In my science class, girls o________ boys by two to one.
4 I’m afraid I u________ the cost of the holiday and didn’t bring enough money.
5 Pierre and Angela hadn’t seen each other for ten years, but their romance was r________ when they met unexpectedly on a train.
6 I’m afraid I’m as b________ as a bat without my glasses.
7 Match the words with the same sound.
pull stub upon acupuncture reflexology useless
Example: put pull
1 up ________, ________
2 along ________, ________
3 devalued ________
8 Underline the stressed syllable.
|Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation total||50|
Read the article and tick (ü) A, B, or C.
DOES COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE WORK?
The main point made by people who dismiss Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) as a pointless waste of time and money is that there is no scientific evidence whatsoever that it works. For conventional medicine there is of course an enormous amount of scientific research to back up the effectiveness of medical treatments. This is because of the fundamental difference between conventional medicine and CAM. Conventional medicine regards the body as a complex and sophisticated machine and illness as a breakdown of one or more parts of the machine. Its aim is to get the machine working properly again by removing the problem parts or treating them so that they return to working order. CAM, in the form of such things as homeopathy, acupuncture, and medical herbalism, regards illness as a breakdown of the body’s natural healing systems. It believes that there is a natural, non-physical force in all of us that enables the body to heal itself and its aim is to make that force powerful enough to overcome illness and restore health.
This natural, non-physical force, however, cannot be detected using the usual scientific techniques. So it is impossible to prove its existence scientifically, and this has led some people to reject the whole idea of CAM. With conventional medicine, we can test scientifically whether treatments have an effect on the body by looking for changes in the body’s cells, nerves, organs and systems as a result of treatment. With CAM, we cannot prove whether or not the natural force for restoring health exists. However, it is possible to see what effects CAM treatments have had on the cells and structures of the body in order to assess their effectiveness.
One example of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of CAM treatments is a study which showed that homeopathic medicine had an effect on the brain activity of sufferers from fibromyalgia, a painful muscle disorder. Research also indicated that acupuncture was effective in the treatment of patients suffering from Crohn’s disease, a painful disorder of the digestive system. Tests on their digestive systems showed that they had less inflammation after acupuncture treatment. Another study concerned the highly diluted solutions used in homeopathic medicines. Sceptics claim that these cannot possibly have any effect because they are so diluted and little or nothing of the original substance remains. But a study showed that ultra-high dilutions of histamine (a protein involved in allergies) have an influence on cell activity in the body.
One of the most common tools of conventional medical research is a test called an RCT. This is a comparative test to discover the effectiveness of, for example, a new drug. Some subjects are given the drug and others are given a dummy pill. The subjects do not know whether they have taken a real pill or a dummy one, known as a placebo. Researchers then look at whether the people who took the real pill showed more improvement than the people who took the dummy pill, or placebo. The same kind of test is also carried out for CAM treatments, and it seems an obvious thing to do in order to get evidence of their effectiveness. However, a number of CAM practitioners feel that these RCT tests are not appropriate for CAM treatments. This is for two reasons.
Firstly, they say, this is because CAM therapies are entirely focused on each individual as a separate case. Treatment isn’t dictated by the specific medical problem the patient is suffering from but by the need to restore to full power that individual’s natural force for maintaining health. So the result of an RCT test for one person may be wholly different for another, meaning that no general conclusion could be drawn about a particular treatment. Secondly, the practitioners say, a key factor in CAM treatments is the relationship between the patient and the practitioner. Many people, especially those with severe or long-standing medical problems, opt for CAM treatments because they do not want to take drugs for a long time or because they do not have faith in conventional medicine to improve their condition. Some of these people may feel that they get benefits from CAM treatments and from their consultations with CAM practitioners, even if the treatments do not work for their original problem. So CAM treatments may be beneficial in ways that RCT tests would not reveal. Some patients, for example, say that they prefer the holistic approach of CAM and feel that the decisions about treatment give them greater control over their own lives than conventional medicine. They like the feeling that they are taking personal responsibility for their own health.
1 The writer says in the first paragraph that criticism of CAM is ________.
A based on ignorance B understandable C increasing
2 The writer says that the difference between CAM and conventional medicine ________.
A is a very great one B is not as great as people may think
C is greater in some forms of CAM than others
3 The writer’s point in the second paragraph is that ________.
A you can’t prove that CAM treatments have had any effect
B you can’t prove that the main principle of CAM is true
C you can’t use the same tests for CAM and conventional medicine
4 The writer uses fibromyalgia and Crohn’s disease as examples of ________.
A conditions that don’t respond to conventional medicine
B conditions that CAM has been shown to improve
C how different kinds of CAM treatment can be compared
5 The study of highly diluted solutions ________.
A disproved a common criticism of homeopathy
B provided different results from previous studies of them
C showed that some solutions are more effective than others
6 When describing what RCT tests involve, the writer says that ________.
A some people disapprove of their use in conventional medicine
B they have proved the effectiveness of some CAM treatments
C they appear suitable for testing CAM treatments
7 The first objection to the use of RCT tests for CAM treatments is that ________.
A the tests do not work for certain medical problems
B tests on a single individual may produce very different results
C the tests do not produce a consistent pattern of results
8 The writer says in the last paragraph that the attitude of patients to CAM treatments ________.
A depends entirely on whether the treatments are effective or not
B is not necessarily connected with whether the treatments are effective or not
C may make them think that a treatment has been effective when it has not
9 The second objection to the use of RCT tests for CAM treatments is that ________.
A they cannot measure the effect of CAM treatments on some patients
B they do not work for the most common CAM treatments
C they may suggest that some ineffective CAM treatments actually work
10 The writer’s purpose in the article is to ________.
A demonstrate why critics of CAM treatments may be right
B recommend CAM treatments rather than conventional medicine
C discuss whether or not the effectiveness of CAM treatments can be proved
Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation
1 1 mustn’t
4 will have to
6 didn’t need
7 not permitted
8 supposed to
2 1 playing
3 look like
6 to have made
3 1 to be
4 to be
5 to have
4 1 at
8 inside / in
5 1 a surgeon
2 a plaster
4 a rip-off
6 1 wind
7 1 stub, acupuncture
2 upon, reflexology
8 1 below