Read the text and complete the chart below with a word from the list that comes after the text. Every word can only be used ONCE. There are FIVE words that you do not need to use. Question 0 has been answered as an example.
THE BATTLE OF STALINGRAD
The Battle of Stalingrad was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its 0) __________ fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in southwestern Russia. The battle took place between 23 August 1942 and 2 February 1943.It was the largest battle on the Eastern Front and was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian 1) __________. It is among the bloodiest battles in the history of 2) __________, with the higher estimates of combined dead and injured amounting to nearly two million. The heavy losses inflicted on the German army made it a 3) __________ point in the war. After the Battle of Stalingrad, German forces never recovered their earlier strength, and attained no further strategic victories in the East.
The German offensive to 4) __________ Stalingrad commenced in late summer 1942, and was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing which reduced much of the city to 5) __________. The German offensive eventually became involved in building-to-building fighting; and despite controlling over 90% of the city at times, the Wehrmacht was unable to dislodge the last Soviet defenders clinging tenaciously to the west bank of the Volga River.
In November 1942, the Red Army 6) __________ Operation Uranus: a two-pronged attack targeting the considered inferior Romanian and Hungarian forces which were protecting the German 6th Army’s flanks. The success of these attacks, after bloody fighting, caused the weakly held flanks to collapse and the 6th Army to be cut off and 7) __________ inside Stalingrad. Only three weeks later, Field Marshal von Manstein’s army group finally attacked the Russian barrier on December 12, 1942, but it could not reach the encircled 6th army. The Germans advanced just 60 kilometers in the direction of Stalingrad, before they were pushed back by a Russian counterattack.
Despite their isolation and starvation, the German 6th army kept fighting, and fortified its positions as much as it could. Hitler demanded that they’ll keep on even after it was clear that they would remain isolated after von Manstein’s rescue attempt failed.
When the 6th army rejected an ultimatum to 8) __________, the Russians started the final attack to crush it. They estimated the number of 9) __________ Germans at 80,000 while there were over 250,000 encircled Germans.
On January 10, 1943, 47 Russian divisions attacked the 6th army from all directions. Knowing that captivity in Russia would be very cruel, the Germans kept fighting a hopeless battle.
As the Russian winter set in, the 6th Army weakened rapidly from cold, starvation and ongoing Soviet attacks. Command ambiguity coupled with Adolf Hitler’s resolute belief in the “power of the will” and the value of “standing fast” further worsened the German predicament. 10) __________, the failure of outside German forces to break the encirclement, coupled with the failure of re-supply by air, caused the final collapse. By early February 1943, German resistance in Stalingrad had ceased and the remaining elements of the surrounded 6th Army had either admitted defeat or been destroyed.
Adapted from © Wikipedia and http://www.2worldwar2.com/stalingrad.htm
ALLIES CONFLICT REMAINS SURROUNDED
BESIEGED EVENTUALLY RESISTED THREW
CAPTURE LASTLY RUBBLE TURNING
CASUALTIES LAUNCHED SURRENDER WARFARE