Posted by: crisdiaz24 | May 23, 2012

ALEXANDER FLEMING – CLOZE TEST

THE HISTORY OF PENICILLIN


The discovery of penicillin is usually attributed __________Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming in 1928, __________ others had earlier noted the antibacterial effects of Penicillium. Fleming, at his laboratory in St. Mary’s Hospital (Now one of Imperial College teaching hospitals) in London, noticed a halo of inhibition of bacterial growth around a contaminant blue-green mould __________ a Staphylococcus plate culture. Fleming concluded that the mould __________ releasing a substance that was inhibiting bacterial growth and lysing the bacteria. He grew a pure culture of the mould and discovered that it was a Penicillium mould, __________ known to be Penicillium chrysogenum. Fleming coined the term “penicillin” __________ describe the filtrate of a broth culture of the Penicillium mould. __________ in these early stages, penicillin was found to be most effective __________ Gram-positive bacteria, and ineffective __________ Gram-negative organisms and fungi. He expressed initial optimism that penicillin __________ be a useful disinfectant, __________ highly potent with minimal toxicity compared __________ antiseptics of the day, but particularly noted its laboratory value in the isolation of “Bacillus influenzae” (now Haemophilus influenzae).__________ further experiments, Fleming was convinced that penicillin could not last long __________ in the human body to kill pathogenic bacteria and stopped studying penicillin after 1931, but restarted some clinical trials in 1934 and continued to try to get someone to purify it __________ 1940.

 

THE HISTORY OF PENICILLIN


The discovery of penicillin is usually attributed TO Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming in 1928, BUT / ALTHOUGH others had earlier noted the antibacterial effects of Penicillium. Fleming, at his laboratory in St. Mary’s Hospital (Now one of Imperial College teaching hospitals) in London, noticed a halo of inhibition of bacterial growth around a contaminant blue-green mould ON a Staphylococcus plate culture. Fleming concluded that the mould WAS releasing a substance that was inhibiting bacterial growth and lysing the bacteria. He grew a pure culture of the mould and discovered that it was a Penicillium mould, ALSO / NOW known to be Penicillium chrysogenum. Fleming coined the term “penicillin” TO describe the filtrate of a broth culture of the Penicillium mould. EVEN in these early stages, penicillin was found to be most effective AGAINST Gram-positive bacteria, and ineffective AGAINST Gram-negative organisms and fungi. He expressed initial optimism that penicillin MIGHT / WOULD be a useful disinfectant, BEING highly potent with minimal toxicity compared WITH / TO antiseptics of the day, but particularly noted its laboratory value in the isolation of “Bacillus influenzae” (now Haemophilus influenzae). AFTER further experiments, Fleming was convinced that penicillin could not last long ENOUGH in the human body to kill pathogenic bacteria and stopped studying penicillin after 1931, but restarted some clinical trials in 1934 and continued to try to get someone to purify it UNTIL / TILL 1940.

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