Posted by: crisdiaz24 | January 11, 2017

OUR BIG BRAINS AND SMALL TEETH DID NOT EVOLVE AT THE SAME TIME – Cloze Test

CLOZE TEST

 

Read the text and complete the chart below with a word from the list that comes after the text. Every word can only be used ONCE. There are five words that you do not need to use. Question 0 has been answered as an example.

OUR BIG BRAINS AND SMALL TEETH DID NOT EVOLVE AT THE SAME TIME
0) __________ the fact that the classic theory suggests otherwise, brain and teeth evolved independently from each other in humans.

The human brain and teeth have not evolved together in humans, 1) __________ what past studies had suggested. Diverse and unrelated behavioural and ecological factors might have influenced the evolution of post-canine teeth and brain size within the Hominid group.

2) __________ with other hominids, one of modern humans’ most distinctive 3) __________ is that they have large brains and small posterior teeth. One of the classic ideas in human evolution research is that that hominid teeth and brain evolved in parallel, with increasing brain size driving dental size reduction.

Indeed, scientists believed that a bigger brain was linked to more complex behaviour, such as the creation of stone tools to cut food, which reduced the need for big teeth and allowed for dental reduction.

4) __________ , this theory has recently been challenged by studies showing that tool use predated big brains. Australopithecus might already have used primitive stone tools some 3.3 million years ago.

In her study published in PNAS[1], lead author Aida Gómez-Robles and her colleagues investigated 5) __________ the evolution of brain and teeth was really linked, by measuring and comparing the rates at which teeth and brains evolved in eight hominid species along the different branches of the evolutionary tree.

“The idea was to quantify rates at which brain and teeth evolved across different hominid lineages, to see if they evolved together and thus address this classic 6) __________ of human evolution”, lead author Aida Gómez-Robles, from George Washington University, told IBTimes UK.

The team looked at eight different hominid species – including Neanderthals, Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens. The researchers measured the evolutionary rates of brain’s and teeth’s size and 7) __________ for the eight species by measuring the differences between those species’ values and estimated ancestral values. This 8) __________ them to identify species that evolved faster than others.

They found that across all lineages, hominid post-canine teeth evolved at a relatively consistent neutral rate, 9) __________ brain size evolved at comparatively more heterogeneous rates. “The fastest rate in the evolution of the brain occurred in the branch of the evolutionary tree predating the divergence of Homo Erectus from the lineage leading to Neanderthals and modern humans. It was known before that these three hominid species had bigger brains but 10) __________ when this evolution occurred and at what rate”, Gómez-Robles said.

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/big-brain-small-teeth-dental-size-did-not-evolve-alongside-brain-humans-1598697

© Léa Surugue, International Business Times

ALLOWED            FEATURE              LIKE                      UNCLEAR

CLEAR                  HOWEVER           MADE                  UNLIKE

COMPARED         ISSUE                    PERMIT                WHETHER

DESPITE               LET                       SHAPE                  WHEREAS

0 DESPITE
1 6
2 7
3 8
4 9
5 10

[1] PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

 

KEY

 

  1. UNLIKE
  2. COMPARED
  3. FEATURE
  4. HOWEVER
  5. WHETHER
  6. ISSUE
  7. SHAPE
  8. ALLOWED
  9. WHEREAS
  10. UNCLEAR
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