Posted by: crisdiaz24 | March 19, 2017

HOW THE INVENTION OF PAPER CHANGED THE WORLD – Cloze Test

 

HOW THE INVENTION OF PAPER CHANGED THE WORLD

 

The Gutenberg 0) __________ press – invented in the 1440s by Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith from Mainz in Germany – is widely considered to be one of humanity’s defining inventions.

Gutenberg 1) __________ out how to make large quantities of durable metal type and how to fix that type firmly enough to print hundreds of 2) __________ of a page, yet flexibly enough that the type could be reused to print an entirely different page. His famous bibles were beautiful enough to rival the calligraphy of the monks.

Actually, you can 3) __________ about Gutenberg’s place in history. The movable type press was originally developed in China. Even as Gutenberg was inventing in Germany, Koreans were ditching their entire method of writing to make printing easier, cutting tens of thousands of 4) __________ down to only 28.

It is also not true that Gutenberg single-handedly created mass literacy. It was common 600 or 700 years earlier in the Abbasid Caliphate, reaching the Middle East and North Africa.

Still, the Gutenberg press 5) __________ change the world. It led to Europe’s reformation, science, the newspaper, the novel, the school textbook, and much else.

But it could not have done so 6) __________ another invention, just as essential but much more often overlooked: paper.

Paper was another Chinese idea, from 2,000 years ago.

Initially it was used for wrapping precious objects, but soon people began to write on it because it was 7) __________ than bamboo and cheaper than silk.

Soon the Arabic world embraced it, but Christians in Europe did not. Paper came to Germany only a few decades before Gutenberg’s press.

Why? For centuries, Europeans did not need the stuff.

They had parchment, made 8) __________ animal skin. It was pricey – a parchment bible required the skins of 250 sheep – but since so few people could read or write, that 9) __________ mattered.

But as a commercial class arose, needing contracts and accounts, cheaper writing material looked more attractive.

And cheap paper made the economics of printing more attractive too: there was no need to 10) __________ a million sheep any more.

Printing is only the start of the uses of paper. We decorate our walls with wallpaper, posters and photographs, we filter tea and coffee through it, package milk and juice in it and, as corrugated cardboard, we use it to make boxes.

We use wrapping paper, greaseproof paper, sandpaper, paper napkins, paper receipts and paper tickets.

Adapted from: http://www.bbc.com/news/the-reporters-38892687  ©By Tim Harford BBC World Service

 

AGREE                 DISAGREE            HARDLY               OF

CHARACTERS       EXAMPLES           HAS                      PRINTING

COPIES                 FIGURED              HEAVIER              SLAUGHTER

DID                      FROM                  LIGHTER              WITHOUT

 

0. PRINTING 6.
1. 7.
2. 8.
3. 9.
4. 10.
5.

KEY

0. PRINTING

  1. FIGURED
  2. COPIES
  3. DISAGREE
  4. CHARACTERS
  5. DID
  6. WITHOUT
  7. LIGHTER
  8. FROM / OF
  9. HARDLY
  10. SLAUGHTER

 

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