Posted by: a2cristina | May 3, 2019

COMPULSORY VACCINATION: DOES IT WORK IN EUROPE? – MULTIPLE CHOICE CLOZE TEST

  COMPULSORY VACCINATION: DOES IT WORK IN EUROPE?

 

 ‘As Europe battles measles 1) __________, Italy, Romania, France and Finland are tightening their vaccination laws. The benefits are questionable. ’

Compulsory vaccination was first introduced in the UK through the 1853 Vaccination Act. The law required that all children ‘whose health permits’ be vaccinated 2) __________ smallpox, and obliged 3) __________ to certify that vaccination had taken place. Parents who refused vaccination could be fined £1.

Since then, vaccine mandates [1]have evolved to include a variety of incentives and 4) __________. In some US states, children cannot access public schools without being vaccinated; in Australia, compliance with childhood immunisation schedules has been linked to pre-school admission (‘No jab, no play’) and to family 5) __________ payments (‘No jab, no pay’).

In most 6) __________ where vaccine mandates are in force, they apply only to childhood immunisation. However, vaccination is a condition of employment in some institutions – notably in 7) __________ facilities. This is not a legal mandate per se but is a form of discrimination accepted in several jurisdictions. In principle, mandates – like vaccines – can be for people of all ages.

In Europe, the picture is mixed. A 2010 study of 27 EU countries (plus Iceland and Norway) found that 15 had no 8) __________ vaccines. In the meantime, Italy has added 10 vaccines to its list of compulsory vaccines; France and Romania are preparing new laws that would penalise parents of 9) __________ children; and Finland will introduce legislation in March 2018 that requires health and social care providers to ensure staff are immunised against measles, chicken pox, whooping cough and influenza. The diversity of measures taken suggests no 10) __________ strategy exists that can be universally applied.

Adapted from:

https://www.vaccinestoday.eu/stories/mandatory-vaccination-work-europe/

 

  1. a. breakdowns      b. outbreaks            c. outbursts              d. turnouts
  2. a. against               b. for                         c. from                       d. to
  3. a. consultants       b. physicians           c. physicists              d. specialists
  4. a. amends             b. damages               c. penalties               d. retributions
  5. a. assistance         b. down                     c. mortgage              d. tax
  6. a. examples          b. instances              c. occasions              d. samples
  7. a. healthcare        b. medic                    c. welfare                  d. wellness
  8. a. mandatory       b. optional                c. unnecessary        d. voluntary
  9. a. immune           b. immunized           c. inoculated            d. unvaccinated
  10. a. disproved        b. proven                   c. refuted                  d. unverified

[1] Mandate: any authoritative order or command.

 

KEY

 

  1. B. OUTBREAKS
  2. A. AGAINST
  3. B. PHYSICIANS
  4. C. PENALTIES
  5. B. DOWN
  6. B. INSTANCES
  7. A. HEALTHCARE
  8. A. MANDATORY
  9. D. UNVACCINATED
  10. B. PROVEN

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