Distracted driving is a serious and growing threat 0) __________ road safety. With 1) __________ and more people owning mobile phones, and the rapid introduction of new “invehicle” communication systems, this problem is 2) __________ to escalate globally in the coming years. However, to date there is insufficient evidence on the risks associated with different sources of distraction, and what interventions can be put into place to reduce their impact 3) __________ road traffic crashes. There are different types of driver distraction, but the use of mobile phones 4) __________ driving is of primary concern to policy-makers. Evidence suggests that this behaviour is increasing rapidly 5) __________ a result of the exponential growth in the use of mobile phones more generally in society. Not only 6) __________ mobile phone use be considered as one example of the broader problem of driver distraction, but studies from a number of countries also suggest that the proportion of drivers using mobile phones while driving has increased over the past 5–10 years. In many countries the extent of this problem remains unknown, 7) __________ data on mobile phone use is not routinely collected when a crash occurs. Only if data is collected 8) __________ we be able to know the effects of mobile phone use on drivers’ behaviour. Using mobile phones can cause drivers to take their eyes off the road, their hands off the steering wheel, and their minds off the road and the surrounding situation. It is this last type of distraction – known 9) __________ cognitive distraction – which appears to have the biggest influence on driving behaviour. Evidence shows that the distraction caused by mobile phones can impair driving performance in a number of ways, e.g. longer reaction times (notably braking reaction time, but also reaction to traffic signals), impaired ability to keep in the correct lane, and shorter following distances. Text messaging also results in considerably reduced driving performance, with young drivers 10) __________ particular risk of the effects of distraction resulting from this use.
- CAN / MUST
- AS / SINCE
RED NOSE DAY
- In March you can see red noses everywhere in England.
- Comic Relief was launched from a(n) ________________ in Sudan in 1985.
- The aim was for Comic Relief to _________________ to help Ethiopians dying of hunger.
- British actors are meant to make the public __________________.
- Red Nose Day takes place ___________________.
- People watch the programme and _________________.
- What the charity gets is used to help people in ____________________.
- The website is full of _________________ ideas.
- You can also learn what _________________ have been doing to help the charity.
- They also tell you how you can get __________________.
- In 2009 the charity got as much as ________________.
- REFUGEE CAMP
- RAISE MONEY
- EVERY ODD YEAR
- DONATE MONEY
- THE UK AND IN AFRICA
- 82 MILLION POUNDS
- What social or global issues are a major problem nowadays?
- What do people do to try and solve them?
- Discuss the following statements and say whether you agree with them or not.
- Nobody does something for nothing.
- I would never give money to a charity.
- There’s no point in giving money to beggars, they only spend it on alcohol.
- Events like Band Aid are motivated by publicity rather than humanity.
- What charities can you mention?
- How can we help charities? How can well-known people help them?
- Do you support any charities? If so, how long and why have you supported them?
- In which of the following ways do you support the charity?
- by giving occasional donations.
- By regular donations.
- By standing order.
- By being a volunteer.
- Buying from the charity’s shop.
- Donating goods to the charity’s shop.
- They only realized they had done something wrong after the election results.
- The economy will not suffer further pressures only if the measures adopted are correct.
- There has not been such a recession since the seventies.
- We did not know the exact results of the elections until the following morning.
- You must only call me if your cold gets worse.
- The Euro is held together only by fear.
- We can only understand this period of history if we learn about its religious roots.
- The little girl could only see the Christmas Parade by sitting on her father’s shoulders.
- Cyber warfare policy will only be developed after a catastrophic event has occurred.
- I didn’t realise I had left my umbrella in the classroom until I reached the school front door.
- British economy will not be the biggest in Europe until 2050.
- You won’t go out until I say so!
- I can only relax when I am alone.
- Some teens only use the library when they have to do research on school projects.
- Reforms should be carried out only when the NHS is ready.
- You will only understand the history of the region when you visit it.
- Syria’s crisis can be settled only if the government lay down arms.
- You are only allowed to buy cigarettes if you are old enough.
- The government can only expropriate land if there is a genuine need.
- London Olympics did not start until 27th of July 2012.
- Mankind has not been denied so much knowledge as it does today since the destruction of the Library of Alexandria.
- So many election protesters had not been seen since the fall of the Soviet Union.
- Do you have
– a landline phone?
– a mobile phone?
- If so, which one do you use the most?
- How often do you use either of them?
- Who do you usually phone?
- What do you use your mobile for?
- What mobile phone carrier (company) do you use and why? Are you happy with it?
- Are mobile phones expensive?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of both landline and mobile phones?
- Do you know how to use all the functions on your phone?
- Have you ever lost your mobile phone? If so, what did you do?
- Could you live without your mobile phone?
- Does it annoy you when people use their mobile phones?
- Do you remember the first time you had a mobile phone?
A RARE INTERVIEW WITH MELINDA AND BILL GATES – AND THEIR CHARITIES
- Bill and Melinda Gates’ Foundation has already spent….
- ________________ on vaccines.
- ________________ on scholarships in America.
- ________________ to improve farming in Africa and Asia.
- The Gates live in a(n) ______________ high-tech mansion.
- They met at a(n) ________________ 23 years ago.
- Melinda did not think it was a great idea to _________________ the CEO of the company.
- They first thought of _________________ their money in 1993.
- They do not think it is a(n) __________________ to their kids having gigantic wealth.
- After having given 30 billion to the Foundation, they will also donate __________________ of their money.
- Bill Gates and Warren Buffet challenged other billionaires ___________________ to the charity of their choice.
- There is a huge ________________ for cancer drugs and there are _________________ of pharmaceutical companies which spend tens of millions on these drugs.
- Their charity granted 50 million to ________________, and not to cancer, because there is almost no money given to it and it kills over a million children a year.
- They pick the diseases of ___________________ and try to get the best _______________.
- They have tried to find the places where the money will have the most ______________.
- 4.5 billion – 2 billion – 1.5 billion
- Microsoft meeting
- giving away
- to give half of their wealth
- market – dozens
- the poor – scientists
THE GREAT EXODUS
Every day, thousands of refugees 0) __________ for Europe. Their hopes for a new life are greater than their fear of the passage across the Mediterranean Sea.
It’s springtime, and again, refugees are making their way to Europe. The reasons are manifold: poverty – often abject poverty -, no education, no chance of a job. Then there are dictatorships, despots, torture, persecution, oppression, civil wars, regular wars and often a failed state 1) __________ marauding gangs reign.
Sheer hardship and a sense of hopelessness are 2) __________ drives people to flee their homes; to try for a new life in a foreign country, hoping for a modicum of luck. They come 3) __________ many countries, including Eritrea, Somalia, Libya, Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan – that’s not even mentioning the internal migration in crisis areas.
An 4) __________ 50 million refugees are on the move. Their odyssey is perilous and often ends in death because they don’t try to undertake the journey on their 5) __________ but rely on smugglers to take them to the land of their hopes. The routes are often anything but straightforward, say from Syria via Turkey to Algeria, 6) __________ the desert to Libya, and then on a boat to the continent of hope: Europe. 7) __________ they are abandoned by the boat’s crew and drown. This modern-day slave trade has become a billion-dollar business – brutal and cynical.
The refugees that 8) __________ it to Europe are crammed into emergency shelters, sometimes they receive medical care, and often they face deportation within just a short period of time. Or they go underground and try to survive and even feed their families by 9) __________ on illegal, often dishonorable jobs and unskilled labour.
Some receive support and help from their own families, others are backed by volunteers who come to the newcomers’ aid. Yet 10) __________ depend on the goodwill of the states that grant them asylum. And many, very many, must return to the poverty and hopelessness they fled.
Adapted from © Alexander Kudascheff.
I DIDN’T KNOW THAT – THE SECRET LIFE OF TELEPHONES
- How must the string be if you want vibrations to travel to the cup at the other end?
- What does the cup at the other end work as?
- When was this fact discovered?
- What was the crinoline lady used for?
- What happened when the use of the telephone became widespread?
- Why did operator girls clock off at 8 pm?
- What were operators replaced by?
- How did phone conversations then begin to be transmitted?
- What replaced our old cabling system?
- How much information can be carried in this way?
- How are voices carried?
- How many mobile phones are there in use in the UK alone?
- to cover ugly phones / to hide ugly phones
- they wanted to make them different
- they were not allowed to work the night shift.
- electronic switches
- on high frequency radio signals (called mocrowaves)
- optical fibers
- millions of bits of information at once
- along pulses of light, which make them arrive quicker and clearer
- 60 million
INVERSION – THE OMEN
- Mr. Robert Thorn knew his son had died at birth after he arrived at the hospital.
- He had never thought his baby would die.
- Priests don’t usually offer orphans as surrogate children.
- Mr. Thorn accepted the offer and didn’t tell his wife what had happened.
(Not only … but also)
- Mr. Thorn didn’t share the secret with his wife.
(On no occasion)
- This sort of adoption seldom happens in real life.
- Mr. Thorn didn’t know much about the baby’s mother.
- Mr. Thorn hadn’t decided to keep the child until he saw the baby.
(Not until )
- Mrs. Thorn will never be able to bear another child.
 Surrogate: suplente, sustituto, en vías de adopción. Surrogate mother: vientre de alquiler.
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