INTELLIGENCE AND STUPIDITY
- What does, in your opinion, intelligence consist of? How do you know whether someone is intelligent or not? Can somebody be both intelligent and stupid?
- What kind of factors can we take into account when talking about intelligence?
- What is “stupidity”?
- There is such a thing as “World Stupidity Awards”, which were founded in 2003 and which recognise achievements in ignorance and stupidity. Some of the categories include:
- Stupidest man of the year.
- Stupidest statement made by a politician.
- The dumbest moment of the year.
- A stupidity award for being most out of touch with reality.
- Stupidest movie of the year.
- Lifetime achievement award for stupidity.
- Stupidity award for reckless endangerment of the planet.
In pairs or groups discuss who you would give three of the awards mentioned above to?
- Who have been the most intelligent people of all times in the fields of…
- Physics / chemistry.
- The Arts.
- Medicine / Psychiatry / Psychology.
- Natural sciences.
- Who is the most intelligent person you know? Why do you consider him / her intelligent?
Complete gaps 1 to 10 with ONE suitable word.
NATURE vs. NURTURE
The nature vs. nurture debate is the scientific, cultural, and philosophical debate about 1) __________ human culture, behavior, and personality are caused primarily by nature or nurture. Nature is often defined in this debate as genetic or hormone-based behaviors, 2) __________ nurture is most commonly defined as environment and experience.
The nature vs. nurture debate is an ongoing one. The modern debate often centers around the effect genes have 3) __________ human personalities as opposed to the influences that early environment and development might have. As cultural mores have changed, so have popular understandings of this debate. In the 1960s, for example, psychologists—and pop culture in general—4) __________ heavily influenced by the theories of behaviorism. This theory 5) __________ to the widespread belief that human personality is primarily influenced by experience and training. It was during this time that researcher John Money attempted to demonstrate that gender was a product of early conditioning by 6) __________ a boy, whose circumcision was botched, as a girl. His experiment seemed successful in the beginning, but ultimately was a failure.
In recent years, the nature side of the debate has 7) __________ more attention, with headlines trumpeting newly discovered genes for virtually every behavior. Evolutionary psychology and sociobiology are two 8) __________ of science that attempt to demonstrate the evolutionary roots of human behavior. Books authored by scientists in these fields are 9) __________ popular. However, critics 10) __________ emphasize the important role of early childhood environment, development, and cultural influences, and many have argued that sociobiology and evolutionary psychology are deterministic pseudo-sciences.
- our programmed behaviour was formed in our brain during our ________________.
- Hunter-gatherers had to be very good at solving problems in order to ________________ and to ________________.
- Our minds keep on functioning as though we were still in the ________________ that made us.
- The reason why we act the way we do is due to ________________ in the past.
- By the end of the 1980s, the ________________ was about to be tackled by DNA.
- The research James Watson carried out ended up in what is called “The Human ________________ Project.”
- James Watson and Craig Venter’s ambition was to map the ________________ of every single gene in our DNA.
- In the beginning, identifying each human gene was extremely difficult as it was done ________________.
- In 1986 an American lab was able to finally label each of the four letters of the genetic code using different colour ________________.
- Venter was one of the first to use the new ________________ sequencing technology.
- ________________ dollars were needed to carry out the research.
- Watson’s dream was to ________________ DNA.
- Everyone knows that eating fruit is good for you.
- They say that the palace was destroyed by the earthquake.
- People say that the company paid $50,000,000 for the shares.
- People say that Mr Johnson was difficult to work with.
- They think that one of the guests stole the jewels.
- We believe that the Chinese invented gunpowder.
- They think that the two injured men were repairing high-tension cables.
- They say that the escaped prisoner lives in Spain.
- We believe that the government prepared a plan.
- The police know that a professional killer assassinated the President.
- They consider that Maths is a difficult subject.
- They think that Helen has missed the train.
- They say that all the answers are included in her book.
- Nobody knew that Peter was in Madrid.
- They say that their marriage is breaking up.
Talk with your partner about…
- Something which is thought to happen on the 20th January.
- Famous people who are known to have won a Goya Award.
- Someone who is known to stand for President of the PSOE.
- Someone who thought to have stolen money.
- Someone who is expected to perform in Santander soon.
- famous people who are thought to take drugs.
- Someone you know who is thought to have financial problems in the future.
- People who are said to have committed crimes.
- Famous people who are said to have cheated on their spouses.
- Somebody who is rumoured to have done something illegal.
- Somebody who is known to be a close friend of Almodóvar.
- Two countries which are said to have had very bad relations over the last few days.
- Disorders known to affect people suffering from depression.
- Disorders known to affect people suffering from insomnia.
- Actors who are thought to be nominated for an Oscar.
In pairs or in teams, answer the following questions using a passive structure.
THE PASSIVE (A)
- Who has directed Sully? (Clint Eastwood)
- Who governed Great Britain during the Second World War? (Winston Churchill)
- Who has written Falco? (Arturo Pérez Reverte)
- Who painted Los fusilamientos del dos de Mayo? (Goya)
- What American President visited Cuba in March, 2016? (Obama)
- Who discovered radium and polonium? (Pierre and Marie Curie)
- Who wrote The three Musketeers? (Alexandre Dumas)
- Who painted The Sunflowers? (Van Gogh)
- Who built the Pyramids at Gizah? (the Egyptians)
- Who invented gunpowder? (The Chinese)
- Who has created the Indiana Jones and Star Wars films ? (George Lucas)
- Who discovered the Pacific Ocean? (Núñez de Balboa)
- Who wrote Fortunata y Jacinta? (Benito Pérez Galdós)
- Where is Sir Isaac Newton buried? (Westminster Abbey)
- What musician was found dead at his home on April 21, 2016? (Prince)
- What was being celebrated when a terrorist drove a lorry through the crowds on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice? (14 July / Bastille Day)
- Who was assassinated in Turkey on December 19? (The Russian ambassador to Turkey)
- Who was appointed Spain’s new national team coach in 2016? (Julen Lopetegui)
- What book has been reprinted for the first time after the end of WWII in Germany? (Mein Kampf / My Struggle)
- Where will Donald Trump presidential inauguration be held? (In Washington)
THE PASSIVE (B)
- Who has written The Legacy of the Bones? (Dolores Redondo)
- Who painted The Garden of Earthly Delights? (El Bosco)
- Who invented the printing press? (Gutenberg)
- Who invented the modern steam engine? (James Watt)
- Who beat Hillary Clinton as future President of the United States? (Donald Trump)
- Who found the rabies vaccine? (Pasteur)
- Who built the Alhambra? (the Arabs)
- Who invented dynamite? (Alfred Nobel)
- Which country conducted their fifth and largest nuclear test in September, 2016? (North Korea)
- Who created Microsoft? (Bill Gates)
- Who composed The Brandenburg Concertos? (Johan Sebastian Bach)
- Who has directed The Revenant (Alejandro González Iñárritu)
- Who has created Mafalda? (Quino)
- Who sculpted Moses? (Michelangelo)
- When was a nightclub attacked in Istanbul? (On New Year’s Day)
- What was voted in Britain on June 23, 2016? (Brexit / The fact that the United Kingdom leave The European Union)
- Where is Napoleon buried? (in Paris / at The Invalides)
- Which Spanish TV presenter has been criticised over the outfit she was wearing on New Year’s Eve? (Cristina Pedroche)
- Which Manchester City manager has been heard to say he will resign soon? (Pep Guardiola)
- What actress was chosen to play Princess Leia in the first Star Wars films? (Carrie Fisher)
- A man killed 37 people in Miami a few days ago.
- The police know the name of the terrorist.
- The police have not arrested the terrorist yet.
- The police are looking into the attack.
- A man has attacked a Chinese nursery with a knife.
- Sweden abandons six-hour workday scheme because it is too expensive.
- FIFA voted Cristiano Ronaldo world’s best player for the third time last year.
- Comedian Jimmy Kimmel will host the 2017 Academy Awards.
- They have already released the film Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them in Spain.
THE PASSIVE – TWO OBJECTS
- They have awarded the Cecil B. de Mille Award to Meryl Streep.
- The Nobel Committee awarded Bob Dylan the 2016 Nobel Prize for Literature.
- The police have sent the photo of the terrorist to all police stations.
- Protesters threw stones at the police the other day.
- The Spanish King sent a letter of condolences to the President of Turkey on January,1.
- Finland will give unemployed people a basic income of 560€ per month.
REPORTING IN THE PASSIVE
- There are rumours that Mark Zuckerberg will enter the world of politics.
2. They say the man from Miami was suffering from a mental illness.
- They say that 7,000,000 copies of the magazine Charlie Hebdo have been printed.
- Scientists believe that the ice cap is shrinking much faster than previously thought.
- They think that India is the cheapest country to live in nowadays.
- They say that Switzerland is the most expensive.
- People think Casey Affleck will be nominated for his role in the film Manchester by the Sea.
- 37 PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN mIAMI A FEW DAYS AGO.
- THE NAME OF THE TERRORIST IS KNOWN (BY THE POLICE)
- THE TERRORIST HAS NOT BEEN ARRESTED YET.
- THE ATTACK IS BEING LOOKED INTO (BY THE POLICE)
- A CHINESE NURSERY HAS BEEN ATTACKED BY A MAN WITH A KNIFE.
- SIX-HOUR WORKDAY SCHEME IS ABANDONED BY SWEDEN BECAUSE IT IS TOO EXPENSIVE.
- CRISTINO RONALDO WAS VOTED WORLD’S BEST PLAYER BY FIFA FOR THE THIRD TIME LAST YEAR.
- THE 2017 ACADEMY AWARDS WILL BE HOSTED BY COMEDIAN JIMMY KIMMEL.
- THE FILM FANTASTIC BEASTS AND WHERE TO FIND THEM HAS ALREADY BEEN RELEASED IN SPAIN.
THE ORIGIN OF THE HUMAN MIND: BRAIN IMAGING AND EVOLUTION.
- Martin Sereno says that the title of his lecture may be a little _____________________.
- Martin Sereno will talk about why it is that humans have more __________________ power than animals, in spite of the _______________ between the organization of the human brain and the brains of other primates.
- The first thing he will speak about is the organization of _____________________ in primates.
- In the Renaissance, scientists thought that the sensory modalities joined at the front of the brain in what was called the _____________________.
- Scientists in the Renaissance did not think that _____________________ came from the tissues of the brain. They believed it was kind of airy.
- Memory was then supposed to be situated in the _____________________ ventricle.
- The main part of the brain we study is the _____________________.
- The little primitive animals shown on the screen evolved their eyesight for the purpose of _____________________ at night.
- The small brain of a tarsier would fit into the _____________________ of a human.
- It is not _____________________ or ______________________ that make our brains more powerful.
 Airy: made up of or having the character of air; immaterial.
 Tarsier: a small, arboreal, nocturnal primate of the genus Tarsius, of Indonesia and the Philippines, having a long thin tail, very large immobile eyes, and prominent pads on the fingers and toes: all populations are dwindling.
- COGNITIVE – SIMILARITIES
- VISUAL AREAS
- COMMON SENSE
- EATING BUGS
- SIZE – FOLDS
Read the text and complete the chart below with a word from the list that comes after the text. Every word can only be used ONCE. There are five words that you do not need to use. Question 0 has been answered as an example.
OUR BIG BRAINS AND SMALL TEETH DID NOT EVOLVE AT THE SAME TIME
0) __________ the fact that the classic theory suggests otherwise, brain and teeth evolved independently from each other in humans.
The human brain and teeth have not evolved together in humans, 1) __________ what past studies had suggested. Diverse and unrelated behavioural and ecological factors might have influenced the evolution of post-canine teeth and brain size within the Hominid group.
2) __________ with other hominids, one of modern humans’ most distinctive 3) __________ is that they have large brains and small posterior teeth. One of the classic ideas in human evolution research is that that hominid teeth and brain evolved in parallel, with increasing brain size driving dental size reduction.
Indeed, scientists believed that a bigger brain was linked to more complex behaviour, such as the creation of stone tools to cut food, which reduced the need for big teeth and allowed for dental reduction.
4) __________ , this theory has recently been challenged by studies showing that tool use predated big brains. Australopithecus might already have used primitive stone tools some 3.3 million years ago.
In her study published in PNAS, lead author Aida Gómez-Robles and her colleagues investigated 5) __________ the evolution of brain and teeth was really linked, by measuring and comparing the rates at which teeth and brains evolved in eight hominid species along the different branches of the evolutionary tree.
“The idea was to quantify rates at which brain and teeth evolved across different hominid lineages, to see if they evolved together and thus address this classic 6) __________ of human evolution”, lead author Aida Gómez-Robles, from George Washington University, told IBTimes UK.
The team looked at eight different hominid species – including Neanderthals, Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens. The researchers measured the evolutionary rates of brain’s and teeth’s size and 7) __________ for the eight species by measuring the differences between those species’ values and estimated ancestral values. This 8) __________ them to identify species that evolved faster than others.
They found that across all lineages, hominid post-canine teeth evolved at a relatively consistent neutral rate, 9) __________ brain size evolved at comparatively more heterogeneous rates. “The fastest rate in the evolution of the brain occurred in the branch of the evolutionary tree predating the divergence of Homo Erectus from the lineage leading to Neanderthals and modern humans. It was known before that these three hominid species had bigger brains but 10) __________ when this evolution occurred and at what rate”, Gómez-Robles said.
© Léa Surugue, International Business Times
ALLOWED FEATURE LIKE UNCLEAR
CLEAR HOWEVER MADE UNLIKE
COMPARED ISSUE PERMIT WHETHER
DESPITE LET SHAPE WHEREAS
 PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
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